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Bioecological traits of spittlebugs and their implications on the epidemiology and control of Xylella fastidiosa epidemic in Apulia

Authors: Nicola Bodino, Vincenzo Cavalieri, Crescenza Dongiovanni, Maria Saponari, Domenico Bosco
Date Published: 03/11/2023
Via: APS Publications
Keywords: Epidemiology | Vectors

Abstract


Spatial-temporal dynamics of spittlebug populations, together with transmission biology, are of major importance to outline the disease epidemiology of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca in Apulian olive groves. The spread rate of X. fastidiosa is mainly influenced by (i) the pathogen colonization of the host plant; (ii) the acquisition of the pathogen by the vector from an infected plant, and its inoculation to healthy plants; (iii) the vector population dynamics and abundance at different spatial scales; and (iv) the dispersal of the vector. In this contribution we summarize the recent advances in research on insect vectors’ traits—points ii, iii, and iv—focusing on those most relevant to X. fastidiosa epidemic in Apulia. Among the vectors’ bioecological traits influencing the X. fastidiosa epidemic in olive trees, we emphasize the following: natural infectivity and transmission efficiency, phenological timing of both nymphal and adult stage, the role of seminatural vegetation as a vector reservoir in the agroecosystem and landscape, and preferential and directional dispersal capabilities. Despite the research on X. fastidiosa vectors carried out in Europe in the last decade, key uncertainties on insect vectors remain, hampering a thorough understanding of pathogen epidemiology and the development of effective and targeted management strategies. Our goal is to provide a structured and contextualized review of knowledge on X. fastidiosa vectors’ key traits in the Apulian epidemic, highlighting information gaps and stimulating novel research pathways on X. fastidiosa pathosystems in Europe.

A high-throughput analysis of high-resolution X-ray CT images of stems of olive and citrus plants resistant and susceptible to Xylella fastidiosa

Authors: Nancy C. Walker, Siul A. Ruiz, Talita R. Ferreira, Helvecio D. Coletta-Filho, James Le Houx, Daniel McKay Fletcher, Steven M. White, Tiina Roose

Date: 27/11/23

The bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in several globally important crops. However, some cultivars harbour reduced bacterial loads and express few symptoms. Evidence considering plant species in isolation suggests xylem structure influences...

Direct and indirect effects of two endophytic entomopathogenic fungi on survival and feeding behaviour of meadow spittlebug Philaenus spumarius

Authors: Meelad Yousef-Yousef, Marina Morente, Natalia González-Mas, Alberto Fereres, Enrique Quesada-Moraga, Aranzazu Moreno

Date: 01/11/23

Highlights: Direct exposure of Philaenus to Metarhizium brunneum reduces its survivorship. M. brunneum successfully colonises the host plant and reduces survival of Philaenus. Philaenus reaches the xylem faster on M. brunneum-colonised plants. Xylem sap ingestion by...

Functional Peptides for Plant Disease Control

Authors: Emilio Montesinos

Date: 02/06/23

Plant disease control requires novel approaches to mitigate the spread of and losses caused by current, emerging, and re-emerging diseases and to adapt plant protection to global climate change and the restrictions on the use of conventional pesticides. Currently,...